Acute Myeloid Leukemia
What is AML?
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or AML, is a cancer that forms in the bone marrow from cells that are meant to grow into different kinds of blood cells.
- In people with AML, the disease usually starts in immature cells called “blasts” that grow and divide quickly, forming a multitude of abnormal cells. A build-up of these abnormal cells occurs, eventually crowding out healthy blood cells.1
- AML, like many blood cancers, is complex and actually a group of many diseases distinguished by:
- Cell type 2
- Chromosomal abnormalities 2
- Genetic abnormalities 2
- Classification of AML continues to evolve based on our understanding of disease biology.
What is the impact of AML?
- AML initially develops in the bone marrow, but often moves into the blood and may sometimes spread to other parts of the body; such as the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, central nervous system, and testicles. 1
- It is the most common type of aggressive leukemia in adults. 3
- An estimated 21,450 people are expected to be diagnosed with AML in the U.S. in 2019. 4
- AML generally affects older adults, and has the lowest survival rate of all leukemias, 68 is the median age of diagnosis and there is a 28 percent 5-year survival rate. 3,4
What are the symptoms of AML?
- Signs and symptoms of AML can vary between people. These symptoms may be seen in other conditions as well. Only a doctor will be able to tell if the symptoms are related to AML. 5
- Weight loss 5
- Fatigue 5
- Fever 5
- Night sweats 5
- Loss of appetite 5
- Infections 5
- Easy bruising or bleeding 5
- Many signs and symptoms of AML are caused by abnormally low numbers of healthy blood cells.
How is AML treated?
- For this aggressive disease, doctors typically begin treatment as soon as possible after diagnosis. Currently treatment options for AML may include:
- Chemotherapy 6
- Stem cell transplant 6
- Radiation 6
- Targeted therapies 6
- Transfusions, which can help restore the level of blood cells, are common in people with this disease.6
To learn more about the most common types of blood cancers and what makes them unique, visit our video on the Diversity of Blood Cancers.
1. American Cancer Society. What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia? https://www.cancer.org/cancer/acute-myeloid-leukemia/about/what-is-aml.html. Accessed September 3, 2019.
2. National Cancer Institute. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/adult-aml-treatment-pdq#section/_9. Accessed September 3, 2019.
3. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/annual-cancer-facts-and-figures/2019/cancer-facts-and-figures-2019.pdf. Accessed September 3, 2019.
4. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Statistics Factsheets. Cancer Stat Facts: Leukemia - Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/amyl.html. Accessed September 3, 2019.
5. American Cancer Society. Signs and Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukemia https://www.cancer.org/cancer/acute-myeloid-leukemia/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html. Accessed September 3, 2019.
6. National Cancer Institute. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version. https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/adult-aml-treatment-pdq#section/_46. Accessed on Accessed September 3, 2019.